Week 7 (10/2, 10/4)
(1) identify at least 5 principles as discussed in class today
1. Provide transparency of environment and processes to users
2. Flexibility in design of environment
3. Patient centered-design
4. Reduce stress of staff
5. User friendly environment
(2) identify at least 5 problems your team are interested in - present the problems in "crisp" and "brief" descriptions
1. The emergency department is unbelievable small and crowding. The visibility is limited by narrow hallways and many turns.
2. HKS design team proposes to use single entrance to reduce users' confusing and walking distance between different departments. The proposed layout of the new hospital seems very complicated. Whether the new design works, we need more investigation.
3. The entire hospital will move into the new site in one weekend and still remain operation. It will cause lots of wayfinding problem and the movement disorder.
4. There are no real-time updated wayfinding aids in hospitals such as GPS/RFID.
5. The siblings and other materials objects that the patient's family has when entering the hospital leads to space issues in the waiting areas and exam rooms.
(3) find at least 10 related literature, either evidence, benchmarking or best practices examples (look up Center of Health Design's evidence based design solutions or intentions for each problem, or information collected from site visit http://healthdesign.org/research/
evidence 1: The degree of simplicity of floor plan affects wayfinding performance
Best, G. A. (1967). Direction-finding in large buildings : a summary report. Manchester: University of Manchester Industrial Design Technology.
abstract:high correlation between the lostness and number of choices in that route.(r=.93). the 'lostness' of subjects is defined by deviation from the most direct route (the shortest path).
Weisman, J. (1981). Evaluating architectural legibility: wayfinding in the built environment. Environment and Behavior, 13(2), 189-204.
abstract:A significant relationship was found between judged simplicity of Building plan configuration diagrams and reported frequency of disorientation across 10 Buildings. simplicity judgments, provided by a group of independent raters, were able to account for 56% of the variance in reported frequency of disorientation data.
O'Neill, M. J. (1991). Effects of Signage and Floor-Plan Configuration on Wayfinding Accuracy. Environment and Behavior, 23(5), 553-574.
abstract:plan configuration was found to exert a significant influence regardless of signage, because the wayfinding performance of participants with access to signage in the most complex settings remained equivalent to, or significantly poorer than, those in the simplest settings with no signage.
Haq, S., & Zimring, C. (2003). Just down the road a piece: The development of topological knowledge of building layouts. Environment and Behavior, 35(1), 132-160.
Peponis, J., Zimring, C., & Choi, Y. K. (1990). Finding the building in wayfinding. Environment and Behavior, 22(5), 555-590.
abstract:Space Syntax measures of connectivity and integration were good predictors of the use of spaces during both open and directed search.
evidence 2: people with Virtual Environment training performance better in wayfinding than people without VE training, even people with site visit experience.
Hunt, M. E. (1984). Environmental Learning without Being There. Environment and Behavior 16(3), 307-334.
abstract: To evaluate the simulation technique, a field experiment was conducted. The sample was divided randomly into three groups: simulation group; site visit group; and control group. A person's working knowledge was defined operationally by assessing the following: confidence in way-finding ability; the mental image of the building; and way-finding ability in the building. The evaluation demonstrated that the working knowledge provided by the simulation technique was actually more useful than that provided by actual visits to the building.
Foreman, N., Stanton-Fraser, D., Wilson, P. N., Duffy, H., & Parnell, R. (2005). Transfer of spatial knowledge to a two-level shopping mall in older people, following virtual exploration. Environment and Behavior, 37(2), 275-292.
abstract: Experimental group with in a VE training shows greater accuracy in making pointing judgments toward targets not visible from the pointing site, took shorter times to perform route tasks on foot, made better left-right directional judgments, and sketched better maps of the mall, than the control group without VE training.
evidence 3: difference in spatial cognition/wayfinding ability between children and adults
Siegel, A. W., & White, S. H. (1975). The Development of Spatial Representations of Large-Scale Environments. In Advances in Child Development and behavior (pp. 9-55). New York: Academic Press.
abstract: The authors concentrate their review on large-scale space, and show a strong parallel between a child's acquisition of spatial competence and an adult's acquisition of the spatial structure of a new environment. Landmarks are first noticed and remembered. The child acts in the context of these landmarks, and given landmarks and action-sequences, route formation is accomplished. Landmarks and routes are formed into clusters, but until an objective frame of reference is developed, these clusters remain uncoordinated with each other. Survey representations appear as a system of routes arising from and embedded in an objective frame of reference.
Allen, G. L. (1982). The organization of route knowledge. In R. Cohen (Ed.), New Directions in Child Development: Children's Conceptions of Spatial Relationships. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
abstract: (1) adults and children do not spontaneously select the same environmental features as reference points after viewing a route; (2) college students exhibit more accurate spatial knowledge of the route than do seven- or ten-year-old children when all subjects are tested with scenes selected by their age peers on the basis of potential landmark value; and (3) the older children, but not the younger children, reflect more accurate spatial knowledge of the route when tested with reference scenes selected by their age peers.
Jansen-Osmann, & P. Fuchs, P. (2006). Wayfinding behavior and spatial knowledge of adults and children in a virtual environment - The role of landmarks. Experimental Psychology, 53(3), 171-181.
abstract: Existence of landmarks has more influence on younger children compared to adults in their wayfinding performance.
Jansen-Osmann, P., Schmid, J., & Heil, M. (2007). Wayfinding behavior and spatial knowledge of adults and children in a virtual environment: The role of the environmental structure. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 66(1), 41-50.
abstract: In almost all measurements of wayfinding performance and spatial knowledge an overall developmental progress from younger children to adults was found. In contrast, exploration behavior did not differ between adults and children Furthermore, the environmental structure tended to influence only the wayfinding performance of younger children, but did not have any effect on the exploration behavior and the spatial knowledge of children or adults.
evidence 4: people navigating in virtual environment have similar spatial performance to people navigating in the equivalent real-world environment
Jansen-Osmann, P., & Wiedenbauer, G. (2004). The representation of landmarks and routes in children and adults: A study in a virtual environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24(3), 347-357.
Ruddle, R. A., & Lessells, S. (2006). Three levels of metric for evaluating wayfinding. Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15(6), 637-654.
evidence 5: stress in relation to the staff's environment
Anjali Joseph, Ph.D. and Roger Ulrich, Ph.D. (2007). Sound Control for Improved Outcomes in Healthcare Settings Funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Joseph, Anjali. (2006). The role of the physical and social environment in Promoting Health, Safety, and Effectiveness in the Healthcare Workspace. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
(4) add at least 5 questions to the Q&As area (please sign your team name after the question)
1. What is the positive environmental distraction for child?
2. What is the difference in spatial cognition/wayfinding ability between children and adults?
3. How to get the drawing of floor plans of old and new hospital?
4. Is there any 3D model from the design company?
1. Where are there changing tables located in a children's hospital?
2. Are there lactation rooms being built into children's hospitals or have they been in them historically?
- Present all 4 items above on October 2nd